Monday, May 25, 2020

Post-humanist And Vitalist Posthumanism - 709 Words

Vitalist posthumanism on the other encompasses various philosophical orientations and philosophers, including the feminist theorist, non-representational theories, and more than human geographers who take inspirations from the deconstructive posthumanism but rather analyze humans’ well-being in a different ontology which Lorimer refers to as nonessentialist, vitalist ontology (Lorimer, 2009). Notable scholars who inspired this strand of posthumanism include Isabelle Stengers, Gilles Deleuze, Bruno Latour, and among other equally important scholars. The main argument of this strand of posthumanism especially from the work of Bruno Latour and his contemporaries is that, humans have never been modern and challenged the dualism perpetuated by†¦show more content†¦They are averse to the centrality position accorded humans and their consciousness over other beings. This aversion or challenge to the centrality of humans in geographical analysis as emphasized by humanistic ge ography is conspicuous when Latour states that â€Å"challenging the idea that humans occupy a separate and privileged place among other beings has been the central goal of a now familiar posthumanist agenda in geography† (cited in Anderson 2004, p.4). The third similarities shared by the deconstructive and vitalist posthumanism is that both strands shared a similar epistemological perspective. They both shared a seemingly analogous epistemology and that is an epistemology that is grounded in situated knowledge and not the kind of epistemology advanced by the humanistic geography which is constructed on the solitary human subject (Lorimer, 2009). By situated knowledge, it denotes a knowledge that is explicit to a situation, hence not having a universal applicability. Differences between Deconstructive posthumanism and Vitalist posthumanism Despite the commonalities between the deconstructive and vitalist humanisms discussed in the previous section, there are some differences that can be deciphered between these two strands. First and foremost, both strands differ from an ontological standpoint. Whilst vitalist posthumanism has a comprehensible ontology, the deconstructive posthumanism are anti-ontological in their approach (Lorimer, 2009). Secondly, the

Thursday, May 14, 2020

What Are They Doing Home So Early - 1014 Words

Fuck, what are they doing home so early?† My dog, Rosco, barked and propped his shaggy paws up onto the window sill, tail wagging with an energy which I could never fathom exerting for anything or anyone. The blue Honda pulled in, immediately followed by my father’s shiny Tesla. I hoped that he would get me a nice car for graduation because, at the time, things like that mattered to me. Quickly, I moved from the sofa and turned off the T.V. before slipping into the slatted coat closet. In hindsight, it was a stupid place to hide. But, I had stayed up all night to play Fallout, so I wasn’t exactly thinking straight. What a shit day to skip school. I heard the keys on my father’s massive keyring jingle as he searched for the proper one and†¦show more content†¦Through the thin slits in the closet door, I could see my father drop the man’s arms and walk into the kitchen. Rosco continued to play with his new friend. His friend did not play back. The sound of drawers opening caught my attention and I could hear the low grumbling of my father, cursing my mother for her unintuitive organization of the various kitchen supplies. â€Å"Bottom drawer, next to the freezer,† she yelled, somehow sensing his difficulty from the bedroom. He cursed her again and shut the door, coming out with a thick roll of semi-clear plastic sheeting. As if setting the table for an impending feast, my father began to drape the plastic over the long wooden coffee table. Then he lifted the man, who seemed to still be breathing, atop the sheeting and covered the floors, taping the seams with focused precision. After completing the strange task, he bound the stranger’s arms and roped him to the table-top. â€Å"Alright, is he ready?† â€Å"Dammit woman, you’re always rushing me.† â€Å"Oh? Well, I’m so sorry,† she hummed, walking into my view, dressed in something straight off of a Victoria’s Secret mannequin. My mother hovered over the man for a moment before sitting on his stomach, crossing her arms impatiently and turning to the kitchen where, I could only assume, my father was presently standing. More fumbling around, drawers opening and closing, myShow MoreRelatedShould School Day Start Later? Essay1395 Words   |  6 PagesStart Later Even though that schools are starting too early and students aren t getting enough sleep. Schools should start later because teens can get more sleep and teens can get their work on time., That schools should start later so students can learn better. because Teens are falling asleep in class because they are getting to school early. and Schools are starting too early and should start later. Students need more sleep in the morning so that when they get to school they can listen more toRead MoreThe Impact Of Pre K Reform On The Issue Of School Readiness1481 Words   |  6 Pagesthese various schools in Texas. Through this process he also tried to figure out what could be done in order to fix the noticeable gap being seen between pre-k programs and kindergarten. His findings showed that students were not properly prepared for kindergarten in the way that they need to be, therefore some sort of change was needed. The pre- kindergarten reform that was being closely examined was called the Texas Early Education Model that was funded all over Texas for â€Å"At risk and poor children(ChristopherRead MoreGender Inequality : Today s Society Essay1377 Words   |  6 Pages Gender inequality has become an ongrowing issue in today’s society. This issue begun in early history and has grown over time. In early days it simply began as women not being able to vote or not be ing able to work. This has improved over time and now women have gained those rights, but there are still inequalities in today’s society between genders. When most people think of gender inequality they automatically think of women. Men have also started to become victims of gender inequality. Read MoreI Am A Simple Minded Person852 Words   |  4 PagesMy life is sort of a puzzle, there were times when I realized what I was doing was not for the best of my interest and had to change them. I am a simple minded person. I like to do thing as simple as possible. When I was growing up my parents use to help me study and do my home works. When my parents help me do my home works the help me how they were helped, they will try to explain the problems and If I don’t get it they will smack me on the head. It was not a great method but it workedRead MoreThe Early Signs Of Psychopathy928 Words   |  4 Pages A Child Psychopath 1. What Are the Early Signs of Psychopathy? 2. What Motives in Early Childhood Can Cause Children to Commit Malicious Crimes? 3. Can Children Grow Out of Psychopathic Tendencies? What Are the Early Signs of Psychopathy? 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Thesis Statement: Today I will inform you about Identity Theft C. Preview of Main Points: In doing so, I will talk to you about 1) reducing your risk, 2) early detection, 3) How to act quickly. II. Body A. Identity theft is defined as an illegal use of someone’s information in order to obtain money or credit in the Webster’s Dictionary. The Federal Trade Commission estimatesRead MoreJournal Syllabus1109 Words   |  5 Pagesservice such as what we doing. We feel very happy because in this subject learn about unity which is work together to make people satisfy such as fell happy and enjoyable in real life. 15 january 2016 (week 2) Second class, we are learning concept and ideas about volunteering. We think volunteering is something that someone to doing something for themselves. What we learn after lecture explain is volunteering is an activity or service which involve spend day time, unpaid, and doing something benefitsRead MoreReflection Paper On Service1161 Words   |  5 Pageshelped me accomplish so many tasks. I also have the strengths of Woo and Positivity. These two strengths helped me interact with the people who stay there and start to get to know them on a personal level. This volunteer opportunity is a good fit for me because it allows me to show most of my strengths. I decided to volunteer my time in the morning and in order to get to the Hope Lodge I would have to get up at 6:30am. My friends would ask me why I was walking up so early. I would tell them itRead MoreEarly Marriage997 Words   |  4 PagesGetting married at a young age is not new in our society, especially amongst the Malay communities. The phenomenon of early marriage seems to be a trend and lifestyle among young people today, especially those who live in rural areas. In the early twenties of the age they have begun talking and thinking about marriage. For some, they accept and assume this as common in Malay traditions and communities, but for others, they consider that this situation and phenomenon should be changed as in line with

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Article 37 Play It Safe With These Free Spin Bonus...

Article 37 – Play it safe with these free spin bonus gambling strategies Depending on your outlook slot games will either be an open delight or a guilty pleasure, but whichever way you view them there is no denying that the online realm has made such games more fun than ever. Part of why slots appeal so much is because of the glamorous and often embellished stories that go along with the games. We have all heard the tall tales of players going all or nothing on the slots and winning big, but in reality tall tales is often all that these stories are. If you want to be a major success at online slots you need to understand that you need more than just luck. You need knowledge and flexibility to really be successful. Thankfully, when it†¦show more content†¦The problem is that some casinos and some games are more ruthless than others when it comes to such. It all means that you should feel comfortable where you’re playing and truly understand what odds and risks lay in front of you. While there is no denying the game itself and its features will determine how successful you, there are several elements within yourself you need to consider before you play. Everyone signs up to an online casino with a bankroll in mind, this means that you need to set your limits before you start wagering. The easiest way to control your gambling is to set a ‘loss border’ and a ‘target-winning amount’. The ‘loss border’ relates to how much you can honestly accept to lose when gambling on the slots, while the ‘target winning amount’ relates to the amount of money you’d be happy to walk way with. Calculate both figures based of the odds and payouts of the game in question and do your best to stick within these boundaries. Looking deeper into the games themselves and how they operate, you shouldn’t play under the premises that you are simply waiting on a payout. Online games don’t ‘charge up’ like the old land-based machines used to. Every spin is completely autonomous, which means is doesn’t how much money you plough into the game, the winning percentage will never change. When it comes to fun, very little else can outdo the exhilaration and excitement of spinning the slots. Problem is that for all the fun it presents on the

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Based on the case, as governor of California, what types of power is Schwarzenegger likely to have free essay sample

Schwarzenegger began weight training at the age of 15. He won the Mr. Universe title at age 20 and went on to win the Mr. Olympia contest seven times. Schwarzenegger has remained a prominent presence in bodybuilding and has written many books and articles on the sport. Schwarzenegger gained worldwide fame as a Hollywood action film icon. Case 1: Arnold Schwarzenegger: Leader of California? 1. What words would you use to describe Arnold Schwarzenegger’s personality? Do any of these fit into the Big Five taxonomy of personality? How might these personality traits influence Arnold Schwarzenegger’s leadership skills? How might these traits have help Schwarzenegger get to where he is now? Schwarzenegger’s characteristics will describe as: Internal: He bears his father bad treatments. My hair was pulled. I was hit with belts. So was the kid next door. It was just the way it was. Many of the children Ive seen were broken by their parents, which was the German-Austrian mentality. We will write a custom essay sample on Based on the case, as governor of California, what types of power is Schwarzenegger likely to have? or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page They didnt want to create an individual. It was all about conforming. I was one who did not conform, and whose will could not be broken. Therefore, I became a rebel. Every time I got hit, and every time someone said, you cant do this, I said, this is not going to be for much longer, because Im going to move out of here. I want to be rich. I want to be somebody. [ He is affected by his family. They make he with strong expressive by his parents were very strict to take out his mind to be more and more rich. That is the first step to him contributed his dream at that moment. External: He is considered cheerful, good-humored and exuberant at school. He based on outside environment, his ability and favorite (interested in sport, especially in bodybuilder), to set a short goal – to be the Mr Universe in Europe. That already prepares for the long time goal The Mr. Universe title was my ticket to America – the land of opportunity, where I could become a star and get rich. (Source: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Arnold_Schwarzenegger) Forward to his goal and try his best to get the best practice that leads to the good result, achieve the prize (second in the Mr. Universe competition, not having the muscle definition of American winner Chester Yorkton). Schwarzenegger know how to integrate all things as goal setting, leadership, power and influence, and personality to catch the success. He sets the clear and specific objectives with step by step: Win the Bodybuilder prize ? come in US to be an famous actor? be an governor in US government machine. 2. Based on the case, as governor of California, what types of power is Schwarzenegger likely to have? What types of influence tactics does Schwarzenegger appear to use? 3. How would you describe Schwarzenegger’s leadership style using the leadership theories covered in this textbook? What details of the case lead you to these conclusions? Is Schwarzenegger’s leadership style likely to be effective? Why or why not? 4. Applying concepts from goal-setting theory, explain how goal have influenced Schwarzenegger’s progression to the governor’s seat. What aspects of the case suggest that Schwarzenegger is committed to the goals that he has set for himself? 5. Are there any â€Å"dark sides† to Schwarzenegger’s charisma and leadership skills? What might these be, and how might they affect his relationships with others and his ability to govern? 6. How might Schwarzenegger’s personality and leadership style help or hinder his ability to effectively negotiate with other parties such as the teachers’ union?

Monday, April 6, 2020

Research on Price Elasticity of Demand for Telecom Essay Example

Research on Price Elasticity of Demand for Telecom Essay Research on Telecommunications pricing Research on Telecommunications pricing Prepared By: Mina Ibrahim Prepared By: Mina Ibrahim Contents Contents1 Executive Summary2 Theoretical Background3 The Theory of Price3 The Demand Function3 The Demand Function for Telecom industry4 The availability and price of Substitutes amp; Complements4 Research Background6 The Egyptian Scenario6 The Egyptian Company for Mobile Communications (Mobinil)7 Important Milestones7 Mobinil Market Position9 Research Analysis and Results10 Quantity Demand Analysis10 Cross Demand Function11 12 Regression Analysis13 Research Conclusion16 Executive Summary Telecommunication is a fast growing industry which is promising its investors secured and growing revenue due to its important in every person’s life and day to day activities. In particular, mobile telecommunications has been a new entrant to the industry. Starting in late 1990s mobile telecommunications achieved a huge growth in a small period of time. The ability to perform calls in any location to any required destination has been accepted and motivated by the users. The advance in technology has made the mobile products highly available to the public with different price ranges that vary based on the functionality and features produced. On important aspect we will be discussing in this document is the minute rate pricing schema adopted by various operators in Egypt. Pricing has been and will be one of the most important aspects in any business and especially for service providers such as telecom operators. We will write a custom essay sample on Research on Price Elasticity of Demand for Telecom specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Research on Price Elasticity of Demand for Telecom specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Research on Price Elasticity of Demand for Telecom specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer There are two major categories in which pricing can depart from marginal costs as per Armstrong (Armstrong, 2001) 1. The problem caused by fixed and common costs, setting all the prices equal to the marginal costs will not allow the operator to break even 2. Pricing is usually determined in some ad hoc manner and may not reflect the costs at all, depending on that profits from one market may subsidize the other The second point is mainly evident in different pricing schemes applied in the Egyptian market. The literature will be discussing various factors affecting the pricing and will be proposing a way in order to effectively determine the pricing that will achieve profit maximization by increasing the gap between the marginal costs and the marginal revenue. Figure 1 Profit Maximization Theory Theoretical Background The Theory of Price The theory of price is an economics theory that provides the optimum price for a certain good or a service based on the supply and demand forces. In hat theory, each force is studied in details and various factors are combined through regression analysis in order to find the optimum price in which supply and demand are equal to reach the market equilibrium. The Demand Function Demand is the quantity of a certain commodity the consumer is willing to buy at a certain price in a certain period. The demand function of a certain good or service is the relationship between the price of the good or service and the amount of it that consumers are willing and a ble to purchase at that given price. Mathematically the demand function can be stated as follows Dx= f(Px, Ps, Pc, I,T) Where Dx = Demand for commodity X Px = Price for commodity X Ps = Price for Substitutes goods of X Pc = Price for complementary goods of X I = Money Income T = Qualitative factor of taste In the mobile communications market substitutes can be described as fixed line communication and voice over IP communication through the internet such as Skype amp; Magic Jack On the other hand complementary goods are replacements of the mobile calls such as short text messaging (SMS) and Blackberry messaging (BBM). Taste is another important factor that affects demand on the mobile phone usage. A recent incident occurred with one of the largest mobile operators in Egypt Mobinil, in which the former CEO and board member Naguib Sawiris has posted an offensive cartoon on his twitter account, which criticize one of the Islamic beliefs. This incident has caused a boycott of Mobinil service by many people. A 4 per cent decline was incurred in its share price during trading in Cairo. The Demand Function for Telecom industry The availability and price of Substitutes amp; Complements Fixed Line As discussed in the theoretical part, mobile phones have come to substitute the fixed line industry as they provide a very important feature which is not found in the fixed lines which is the portability feature. The below figure shows the rise of the number of subscribers for both the mobile market and the fixed line market Figure [ 2 ] Mobile Operator Total Number of Subscribers and Penetration Rate Figure [ 3 ] Fixed Line Subscribers and Penetration Rate We can see clearly how the penetration rate and growth rate for mobile subscribers has exceeded by far the rates for fixed line subscribers. These figures suggest that phone users in Egypt see the mobile telecommunications as a strong substitute to fixed line phones. We can clearly notice this as mobile phones has been in the hands of the rich and the poor; from a famous business man who uses the phone for important conference calls and emails to the poor grocery man who uses his phone as part of his on-going business receiving requests for delivery items. The pricing schemes as well has its factor of having the mobile communications as a stronger substitute, below figures shows the fixed line pricing schemes Figure [ 4 ] Fixed Line Pricing Schemes The rates has been less by far in mobile to mobile communication, where rates has been as low as 15 pt. which is half the price of fixed to mobile price. Internet Voice over IP, The technology used to transmit voice conversations over a data network using the Internet Protocol. Such data network may be the Internet or a corporate Intranet, or managed networks typically used by long and local service traditional providers and ISPs that use VoIP. VoIP Applications include * PC to PC VoIP * PC to Phone VoIP * Phone to Phone VoIP * Prepaid cards Phone to Phone VoIP The third option is considered as one of the greatest substitute for the telecom industry, several phone applications have been spread that include the functionality of performing VOIP calls, example for such applications include Skype, Viper, and Tango that are widely spread on all types of smart phones. Although VOIP calls are considered cheap, they do not offer carrier grade quality; quality depends on connection and state of Internet traffic. Receivers of calls may blame their network operators (not VoIP operator) for the occasional poor quality. Research Background The Egyptian Scenario Mobile phone services where introduced to Egypt about 10 years ago. Since then the mobile phone service has grown enormously with having the subscriber base covering more than 2 thirds of the Egyptian citizens People use the mobile phone service for various reasons, either for mobile calls or for broadband services. The communication sector achieved a growth rate of 14. 1% and 14. 2% in the FY2006/07 and FY2007/08, respectively. In addition, the sector contribution to the overall real economy kept improving, reaching 3. 5% in FY2007/08, compared to 3. 2% in FY2006/07 and 3% in FY2005/06. Figure [ 5 ] Communications Growth The mobile market in Egypt is currently composed of three players, namely Mobinil, Vodafone and Etisalat. The duopoly of Mobinil and Vodafone ended by the entrance of Etisalat after winning the third mobile license bid in July 2006, with a total consideration of LE16. 7bn. It is worth mentioning that Mobinil, the first mobile operator in Egypt, commenced operation in May 1998, followed by Vodafone, which started rendering mobile services at the end of the same year. The entrance of Etisalat in the Egyptian telecom sector changed the market structure and intensified the competition among the existing market players. In response, mobile operators reduced their tariffs on the different price plans and were motivated to introduce multiple packages, as well as improving their service quality, including network coverage and voice quality, in order to keep their market shares and maintain their growth trends. The Egyptian Company for Mobile Communications (Mobinil) The Egyptian Company for Mobile Services (ECMS), launched in May 1998, provides a wide range of telecommunications services. ECMS operates under the brand name â€Å"Mobinil†. It is owned by France Telecom Group (FT), Orascom Telecom Holding (OTH) and public market equity investors. FT and OTH have respectively 36. 34% and 34. 66% economic interest in ECMS. The remaining 29% of shares are publicly traded on the Egyptian Exchange. Mobinil offers its customers 3G services and EDGE technology for high speed download, Internet communication, and high capability browsing. It is also working on the deployment of HSPA+ technology. Figure 6 ECMS Company Shareholder Structure Important Milestones Telecommunications Market is a very dynamic and competitive environment, and over the last five years Mobinil has passed by several milestones which have significantly shaped Mobinil’s performance and position at the moment. Figure 7 Important Milestones in Mobinil History In 2007, Etisalat official launch announcement was on 30th of April. Along with announcing the 3G services launch in Cairo. Being the sole 3. 75G network in Egypt has given Etisalat its edge in the market providing faster connection utilizing a distinguished infrastructure notably a NGN over the first IP backbone solution in the country. Although the incumbent is still new in the market, network coverage has extended to make sure there is coverage in all major cities including Cairo, Alexandria, Zagazig, Tanta, Sharm el Sheikh, Luxor and many more. A management decision has been taken not to go for the 3G services, which has been proven to be a bad decision, especially with the deteriorating ARPU the company was achieving by that time, and the Market Share shrinking it was suffering from to both Vodafone and Etisalat. In 2008, Mobinil has officially announced the start of its 3G operations and the launch of the Largest and Newest mobile network in Egypt on the 1st of September, after teaming up with the global telecommunication manufacturers Nokia Siemens Networks and Huawei for the 3G roll out. In 2009, Mobinil dispute began as a disagreement between two of the company’s major shareholders, France Telecom and Orascom Telecom, about the implementation of an agreement they signed in August 2001 as partners in Mobinil’s holding company. Fifty-one percent (51%) of Mobinil’s shares is held by a holding company which, in turn, is co-owned by France Telecom and Orascom Telecom. France Telecom holds 71. 25 percent of the holding company’s shares while Orascom Telecom holds 28. 75 percent of the shares. Orascom also holds a 20 percent direct stake in Mobinil. The remaining 29 percent of Mobinil’s shares are traded freely on Egypt’s stock exchange. Overall, France Telecom controls approximately 36 percent of Mobinil’s shares while Orascom Telecom controls about 35 percent of the company’s shares. The dispute between France Telecom and Orascom Telecom centered on differing strategies for Mobinil. Orascom Telecom favored greater investment in Mobinil than France Telecom. The two shareholders also differed over Mobinil’s budget and expenditures, its marketing strategy, and the start up of its 3G services. 2] In 2007, Orascom Telecom took the dispute to the International Court of Arbitration at the International Chamber of Commerce in Geneva. In 2010, Egyptian Company for Mobile Services (Mobinil) has announced its acquisition of LINKdotNET, the leading private-sector Egyptian internet service provider, from InTouch Communications S. A. E. , a subsidiary of Orascom Telecom Holding (OTH), in a landmark deal wh ich will improve customers’ access to a wide array of integrated communications services, will create high value for shareholders, and will benefit Egypt’s telecom sector and the country’s overall economy. At a press conference on 4 July 2010, headed by representatives from Mobinil and LINKdotNET, Mobinil announced the signing of a share sale and purchase agreement with InTouch Communications, a wholly owned subsidiary of OTH for the purchase of 100% of LINKdotNET and Link Egypt (LINK). The enterprise value is USD 130 million. In 2010, France Telecom and Orascom Telecom Holding have presented a joint plan to resolve their long running and acrimonious dispute over the ownership of Egyptian mobile network, Mobinil. The agreement, which has been signed on 15th of April, has effectively brought to an end all disputes in relation to their joint investment in Mobinil. In a statement, FT said that the two groups will continue their partnership on a renewed basis going forward, implementing a revised shareholder agreement but with no change to the existing ownership structure or their shareholders voting rights. In 2011, 25th of January 2011 Revolution took place following a popular uprising that began on Tuesday, 25 January 2011 and is still continuing as of December 2011. The uprising was mainly a campaign of non-violent  civil resistance, which featured a series of  demonstrations, marches, acts of  civil disobedience, and labor strikes. Millions of protesters from a variety of  socio-economic  and religious backgrounds demanded the overthrow of the regime of  Egyptian President  Hosni Mubarak. Despite being predominantly peaceful in nature, the revolution was not without violent clashes between security forces and protesters, with at least 846 people killed and 6,000 injured. The uprising took place in  Cairo,  Alexandria, and in other cities in Egypt, following the  Tunisian revolution  that resulted in the overthrow of the long-time Tunisian president. On 11 February, following weeks of determined popular protest and pressure, Mubarak resigned from office. Egypt after 25th Jan Revolution has shown a great initiative to be better from all aspects, surprisingly; Egyptians have shown a great social accountability and awareness, after suffering from a very long period of suppression, however the current instability and uncertainty is badly affecting all the industries including the telecommunications. In 2011, Criticism and calls for boycotting were raised tremendously in a response for Mobinil’s founder Naguib Sawiras who has posted some caricature, which has been accused of offending Islam. This has really affected Mobinil severely especially with the MNP availability in Egypt, causing a hundreds of thousands of subscribers’ migration to competition. Mobinil Market Position Mobinil is the oldest and largest operator in Egypt in terms of number of subscribers. Mobinil has maintained market share leadership up until 2011 with almost 32. m subscribers at Year End 2011 close to some 50% of the market. However, it lost the market share leadership to Vodafone in 2011 due to various events, some related to the management structure at that time and other related to the dispute between the two holding companies; Orascom Telecom and France Telecom which had it’s impacts on company flow and management decisions. In addition to the direct competition Mobinil faces from the other two mobile operators, Mobinil is also facing competition on indirect fronts such as fixed lines, payphones, and Internet connectivity. A monopoly on fixed lines remains with Telecom Egypt as the sole provider, which is still a public entity despite its partial liberalization at the end of 2005. Research Analysis and Results Quantity Demand Analysis Since more than 75% of the revenue comes from the prepaid segment and the trend – both in terms of number of subscribers and revenue- is moving in the direction of the prepaid services, we decided to conduct a demand analysis on the prepaid market. Also it is worth to mention that prepaid segment constitutes more than 96 % of the subscriber base making them the most efficient contributors in the economic analysis and demand analysis The figures for the total minutes and the total revenue were obtained for the last three years period, the figures can be referenced in the appendix, the average price per minutes was assumed to be the total revenue divided by the total minutes performed by the subscribers and the demand was mapped to the number of minutes. The below graph shows the price demand curve for the prepaid segment in Mobinil, during the last three years and due to the harsh competition, Mobinil had to drop the average price per minute and accordingly we can notice that as the price decrease the demand has increased since people started to perform more minutes. Figure 8 Price Demand Curve for Mobinil In real life the price demand curve can be noticed clearly, back then at the start of the company, the price per minute was too expensive, average 40 piasters per minute, and the subscribers at that time were performing minimal calls which were done for the sake of emergency of important work. A phenomena back then was raised which was giving missed calls in order to pass greeting, this phenomena resulted in a high call attempts per second that required a lot of capacity extensions, decreasing the price resulted in the decrease in this phenomena were people started doing calls instead of missed calls, this can be illustrated in the increase in both minutes and revenue showed in Figure 8, the below figure shows the decrease of the call attempt per second per subscribers over the period in study. Figure 9 Average Call Attempt per second per sub Cross Demand Function During our analysis, and referring back to the theoretical section, the complementary products was considered as the SMS part which complements the voice call while the supplementary products were considered as the skype and viber calls. An assumption was made was the revenue from the GPRS was considered as a reflection for the price of skype and viber calls, since these calls are made through the data network GPRS connectivity, subscriber would pay for the data session for this call since calls from Skype to Skype or Viber to Viber are for free. Below graphs shows the change in demand versus the price of complementary goods. Below graphs shows the change in demand versus the price of supplementary goods. Regression Analysis As stated in the theoretical section, the demand function is affected by various factors, including the price of the product, price of substitutes and the price of complementary goods. The impact of various factors on the price elasticity of demand is determined through regression analysis which constitutes the impact of each factor of the product demand. Below is the regression analysis output | Coefficients| Standard Error| Intercept| 181,047,973| 7,686,663| Average Price Per Minute (Px)| -209,067,710| 17,507,478| Average Price of Data (Ps)| -2,391,333| 8,670,406| Average Price of SMS (Pc)| -169,109,146| 24,772,181| Below is the best line fit according to the model used Accordingly the price elasticity of demand can be calculated by the below equation Short run price elasticity of demand = The slope of the price * (Average price / Average quantity) The short run price elasticity of demand would equate to 0. 44 Short run cross elasticity of demand = The slope of the price * (Average price / Average quantity) The short run CED for substitutes would equate to 0. 01 The short run CED for complements would equate to 0. 35 Checking the regression statistics below the following is noticed Regression Statistics| Multiple R| 0. 640469195| R Square| 0. 410200789| Adjusted R Square| 0. 406604453| Standard Error| 22321565. 66| Observations| 496| High Standard Error This is due to the fact that other factors affect the demand on voice calls such as the factor of income and taste, referring back the data used in the analysis dated from 2009 – 2012 in which the range of income per person has ranged significantly. We can identify the income per person from the Per capita income or average income or income per person is a measure of mean income within an economic aggregate, such as a country or city. Below figure shows an increase in the per capita income over the years in study. Since the income elasticity of demand affect the product elasticity, this measure could be affecting the price elasticity of demand and accordingly would result a more accurate calculation of the price elasticity of demand. High R Square In statistics, R Square is the proportion of variability in a data set that is accounted for by the statistical model. In our case R Square is equal to 40 % , a high value meaning that means that the fit might not be good enough to represent the real case. One of the main reasons that might result such high value of R Square is the contribution of brand name and taste in the demand of the subscribers on voice calls. Especially in country like Egypt, people tend to change their demand habits based on their emotions or relationship with a certain company or a certain brand. Mobinil brand has always enjoyed a deep relationship with the Egyptian people, being the pure Egyptian telecom company founded by an Egyptian business person rather than other Multinational companies which were either British (Vodafone) or Emirates (Etisalat). However, actions made by top executives like the Naguib Sawiris twitter scandal may result a change of taste of Subscribers were more than million subscriber decided to port out to other operators after this incident. Since the statistics ranged from 2009 to 2011 containing both the deep relationship and confidence gained by Mobinil and its subscribers during 2009, to the relative change of taste due to the twitter scandal in 2011 and that’s why the goodness of fit is expected to be poor. Research Conclusion Currently Mobinil operates in in-elastic region of price elasticity of demand (PED lt; 1) which means that it should increase the price to obtain higher revenue. However due to intensive market competition and the fact of having Etisalat doing extensive price reduction for the price per minute; backed up with financing from the gulf operations, Mobinil is forced to reduce its price to maintain its market share and avoid churn of subscribers. Accordingly, Mobinil should not be the firm to start lowering the prices, in order not to reduce its revenue, however it should be a market follower rather than a market initiator in areas of price reduction. Mobinil should also focus on providing better quality service which would entice upper segment of the community who would be concerned with quality of service rather than the price of service. [ 1 ]. (Footnote continued)

Monday, March 9, 2020

Every AP Literature Practice Test Available Free and Official

Every AP Literature Practice Test Available Free and Official SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips When you’re studying for your AP Literature Exam, you’re going to want to use practice tests and questions to hone your skills. But where can you find AP literature practice tests? And are all practice exams equally useful for you? The real exam has 55 multiple-choice questions and three free-response questions, but there are practice tests with every conceivable number and combination of question types. In this article, you’ll learn where to find every official College Board AP English Literature and Composition practice exam, free unofficial tests, and paid practice test resources. You’ll also find out which tests are high-quality and how you can best use different practice exams to fulfill your studying needs. Official Free AP Literature Practice Tests The gold standard of AP English Literature practice tests and AP English Literature practice exam questions are College Board released materials. That’s because the College Board administers the AP exams, so their practice questions are most like the actual AP questions you’ll see on the test. There are three different kinds of resources offered by the College Board: complete released exams from past years, released free-response questions from past years, and sample questions from the â€Å"AP Course And Exam Description.† Official Released College Board Exams There are three official released College Board Exams. However, only the most recent one (from 2012) is complete. The 1999 and 1987 exams have the standard 55 multiple-choice questions, but both are missing parts of the three question free-response section. You can still use them as complete exams if you supplement them with released free-response questions from past years which we recommend since official multiple-choice problems are hard to come by. 2012 AP English Literature and Composition Exam This is the best AP Lit practice test available. It's the most recent exam released by the College Board, and it follows the format of the current test with 55 multiple-choice questions and three free-response questions. Definitely make use of this test! 1999 AP English Literature and Composition Exam This test excludes the poetry and prose analysis questions of the free-response section and only has the student choice question.So, to take itas a complete exam, you’d need to supplement it with questions 1 and 2 from the released free-response questions below. You can actually getquestion 2for the 1999 test from the official free-response questions bank, but the excerpt for question 1 can’t be reprinted, so you’ll need to supplement with another poetry analysis question. 1987 AP English Literature and Composition ExamFor reasons that are not totally clear, this exam excludes the third essay question, the poetry analysis. If you want to take this as â€Å"complete† exam practice, use a free-response poetry analysis prompt from the bank of free response questions linked to below. Or supplement with this tree-poem. Official Free-Response Questions There may not be very many complete released exams, but there are tons of free-response questions available from previous administrations of the test. These are great practice, not just for practicing complete essays, but for practicing writing thesis statements, outlines, and so on. What’s also great about these is that most of them come with sample response and scoring guidelines, so you’ll be able to see exactly what makes a high-quality AP essay by College Board standards.Be aware, though, that some of the prose and poetry excerpts can’t be reprinted due to copyright concerns. Below isthe link to all the free-response questions available.The questions go all the way back to 1999, and since there haven't been many changes to the free-response part of the exam, all of these questions can be useful during your studying. AP English Lit Free Response Questions 1999-2019 Sample Questions From the Course and Exam Description The AP English Literature Course and Exam Description has practice multiple-choice questions and free-response questions. They don’t add up to a complete testthere are only 46 multiple-choice questions and a whopping six free response (enough for two tests!)but they are great for simple practice. Your Teacher Your AP teacher may have access to copies of old AP exams that you can use for practice. She probably can’t let you take them out of the classroom, but she may be allowed to loan them to you in a supervised setting. This is because teachers can purchase resources directly from the College Board that students can’t. Asking your teacher may not bear fruit, but it’s worth a try. Why are you asking me for AP lit practice tests? I'm your econ teacher! Free Unofficial AP Literature Practice Tests In addition to the free College Board resources, there are also several places online where you can get free, unofficial practice tests. Be aware that, because these resources aren’t College-Board created or approved, they are of variable quality. For each of these resources I’ll describe what’s offered and how it compares to official College Board tests. Barron’s Books Free Practice Test Barron’s, those distinguished makers of review books, also offer a complete free practice test with multiple choice and free response.They provide the author and name of the work, but not the date. All of these free resources probably credit the authors for copyright reasons, but you won’t have this information on the actual exam. You can take the test timed or in â€Å"practice† mode.While answers are provided for the multiple-choice questions, no scoring guidelines are provided for the free-response prompts. This isn’t an official resource, but the questions are high quality and a good option when you’ve run out of official material. If you combined the multiple-choice questions with some official released free-response questions (with scoring guidelines and sample essays) you could geta pretty good approximation of a complete practice test. Varsity Tutors AP Literature Practice Tests This site has practice multiple-choice quizzes divided by conceptthings like â€Å"interpreting the passage,† â€Å"claims and argument,† and â€Å"interpreting excerpts.† The questions aren’t worded exactly the same way as AP test questions, but they are still okay for testing your passage-interpretation skills. Basically, the questions test for similar skills, but don’t necessarily mimic AP test questions in style. Also, the site provides the date, title, and author of each work, which is not something you’ll receive on the AP exam.You can make a free account at the site to track your scores, but it’s not necessary to be able to take the tests. Kittens not included with free practice tests, unfortunately. Albert AP English Literature Quizzes Albert offers multiple-choice quizzes divided into prose, poetry, and drama categories. You are given the title, date, and author of the workwhich you will not receive on the real AP exam. Like the Varsity Tutors quizzes, Albert offers questions that test similar skills as the AP exam, but the questions are worded differently. High School Test Prep Tests This site offers three short multiple-choice practice tests. You’re given the title and author of the work. The questions for these tests are fairly surface-level, so I would only use these if you are working on your reading comprehension skills. CrackAP English Literature Quizzes CrackAP has over 40 short AP Lit quizzes. Each quiz gives a passage then has 15 multiple-choice questions on it. The questions are somewhat easier than you'll find on the real AP exam, but if you need some quick practice, this can do the trick. Practice Quiz AP English Literature This site offers a 20-question multiple-choice quiz on two passagesone poetry, and one prose. The passages are extremely basic, however, so again, I would only use this resource if you are working on your reading comprehension skills. 4Tests AP English Lit Test This site offers 35 multiple-choice questions. However, there are lots of ads, the questions are poorly written and vague, the interface is clunky, and the passages are very long. Overall, I do not recommend this site. College Board SAT Literature Materials While they aren’t identical by any means, you can definitely use SAT Literature Subject Test practice questions to hone your skill in answering multiple-choice questions about passages. The SAT Subject Test in Literature focuses a little more on the meaning of words and phrases in context and less on making inferences and describing the author’s purpose, but they can still be a useful resource simply for reading and answering high-level, in-depth questions on prose and poetry. You can get sample SAT Literature questions online hereor in the â€Å"The SAT Subject Tests Student Guide† booklet released by the College Board. The queens of AP Lit practice give you their blessing. Paid Unofficial Practice Tests There are also several paid resources that offer unofficial practice questions. Shmoop This is a subscription service with questions for tons of different testsSAT, ACT, AP exams.They also have videos and other review resources. I can’t really speak to the quality of the questions because the entire service is behind a paywall of about $25 a month. Review Books Most, if not all, review books contain practice tests and questions. These will vary in quality depending on the quality of the review book, so be sure to look for reviews online of any book before you buy it. In general, Barron’s and the Princeton Review are fairly reliable review book sources. I definitely advise paying for all of these resources with whatever loose foreign change you have lying around. How to Use AP Literature Practice Tests How to use a given practice test depends somewhat on the resource itself. I’ll offer some recommendations here on how to best use different resources. Complete Official Released Tests The best way to use a complete official practice test is to do a practice-run for the exam. So find a quiet room, bring a timer or watch so you can time sections, and get to work! This will help you get familiar with the exam experience so you’ll feel more comfortable on exam day! Since there are two complete AP Lit practice tests, it makes sense to take one early on in your studying time, and one later. You can get a parent, tutor or teacher to grade the exams. The early test will help you figure out what you need to work on, and the later test will show you how you’ve improved! Since the AP English Literature test is more skills-heavy than content-heavy, you shouldn’t feel totally lost taking a practice test even in the middle of the school year. Official Released Free-Response and Sample Questions Official resources that aren’t complete tests are best for practicing individual sections of the test. The sample multiple-choice questions in the â€Å"Course and Exam Description† make for great AP English Literature multiple-choice practicethey’ll help you get familiar with the style of the questions and practice close-reading. The wealth of released free-response questions are great resources for building your timed essay-writing skills. You can practice complete essays ordevelop essay outlines. Unofficial Practice Tests and Resources Since unofficial practice tests aren’t going to be quite as similar to the real AP exam as official College Board materials, they won’t be quite as useful for preparing for the format of the exam or its questions. However, they can be very valuable close-reading practice. And since that’s a critical skill for the exam, it’s still worth it to use unofficial resources. Be very quiet. She's close-reading. Key Takeaways Practice tests and questions are a hugely important resource as you prep for the AP Lit exam. The gold standard of practice resources are those that come from the College Board, but there are many other places where you can get practice questions that will help you hone your close-reading skills for the exam.Most of the resources listed in this article are free, but a few are paid. When you’ve assembled a stable of practice resources, you might not be quite sure how to use them. Official College Board practice tests are best for simulating the exam experience. College Board questions are good for focused preparation for individual sections of the examespecially the essays. Unofficial resources are best for further honing your close-reading skills. Now that you know where to find these resources,you’ll have even more time to prep for the AP Literature exam by completing practice questions! What's Next? Wondering what you should be reading for AP Lit? Check out our list of 127 great books to help you prepare for the AP Literature exam. Need more study guidance for your APs? See my five-step AP prep plan.Or see our guide on when to start studying for your APs. If you're looking for practice tests for other AP exams, see our assembled practice tests for AP US History, AP Chemistry, AP Biology, AP World History, and AP Psychology. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:

Friday, February 21, 2020

The Main Accounting Principles Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

The Main Accounting Principles - Essay Example This paper will shed light upon how JP Morgan Chase has modified their accounting principles in the past and what impact has the same had on their growth. An Analysis of JP Morgan Chase Business environment is consistently changing, some changes bring unprecedented challenges and these challenges should be met in order to consistently keep doing well. The likes of AIG, Lehmann Brothers could not sustain during the period of recession and as an inevitable result of which suffered hefty losses. This paper will expansively present the accounting policies and the changes adapted by JP Morgan Chase in order to successfully face the modern day challenges. A complete analysis of the major changes incorporated by JP Morgan chase will be expansively presented in this paper. The oldest financial services in the world is without a doubt JP Morgan Chase, it has its presence in well over 60 countries. They are the leaders in investment banking, wealth management and a host of other services. The biggest change that ever took place in the history of the financial institutions was the merger with Bank One. This change primarily took place because the other banks like the Bank of America were almost ready to merge with other big banks like FleetBoston. This merger took place because the financial institutions came under increasing pressure during the time of recession. The announcement of this merger was made on 14 January 2004. The Wall Street reacted very positively because of this merger and the NASDAQ witnessed growth soon after the merger took place. This change took place because the two financial institutions wanted to downsize and cut the deadwood out. The aim was to save about $2.2 billion over three years  and it was planned to eliminate as many as 10,000 people. This again goes to show how desperate even the biggest financial institutions were at the time of recession. Mergers and acquisitions were very common and these overtures were the initial signs which showe d that almost all the big financial institutions were panicking. Volatile corporate banking was the major factor on which JP Morgan primarily functioned. â€Å"Wall Street analysts generally praised the merger, and investors climbed on board. Typically, the shares of the acquirer fall, reflecting the cost of the acquisition. In this case, investors are signaling they believe the combined company will make up for that cost by holding the shares in the $39-$40 range, about where they were before the deal was announced. J.P. Morgan has been on a roll, with its shares up about 74% in the past 12 months. Bank One shares jumped about 15% when the deal was announced, matching the premium J.P. Morgan will pay. Such a move is typical in an acquisition.† (JP Morgan Chase) The investors looked less enthusiastic with the deal between Bank of America and Fleet-Boston. This deal was for a whopping $48 billion. The shares of Fleet-Boston were driven up as a result of this deal because Bank of America offered 40% premium in this deal. The shares of Bank of America however came down and the investors lost a lot of money consequently. Big mergers take place because both the companies involved in the merger want to grow at a tremendous pace but this merger was not very useful for both the financial institutions. The collapse of WORLDCOM in the year 2005 signaled trouble for JP Morgan chase, the institution had to pay a whopping sum of $2 billion. This sum was paid to the different shareholders who had lost a lot of mon